Senate Hall Academic Publishing

Click HERE for a sample entrepreneurship paper

NOTE: Since 2009 the title of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (IJEE) has been changed to the title above.  ISSN numbers: IJEE 1649-2269 and IRE 2009-2822

Publications & Abstracts below

In the ABS journals rankings published by the Chartered Association of Business Schools and also listed by Cabells, EBSCO, ARC, Cranfield, and Thomson-Reuters’ Web of Science ESCI citations index

ISSN Number: 2009-2822. Frequency: 4 Issues per year (online only)  

Article #1523 - Human Capital as a Driver of Innovation Among Necessity-Based Entrepreneurs

IRE Vol 14: Issue 1, 2016 , Pages 1-24

Author(s): Pourya Darnihamedani (NEOMA Business School, Mont-Saint-Aignan, France and Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands) and Jolanda Hessels (Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands)

Although often treated as one group, necessity-based entrepreneurs are heterogeneous in terms of their backgrounds, ambitions and performance. For instance, some of them introduce new products or services to the market while others do not. To gain more insights into this heterogeneity, this paper investigates the drivers of innovation among necessity entrepreneurs taking a human capital perspective. We apply various two stage probit models correcting for potential selection biases (in particular for entry into entrepreneurship) using individual-level data for over 80 countries from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 2002 to 2011. We find that necessity entrepreneurs with high levels of formal education are more likely to be involved in product and process innovations. Furthermore, our results suggest that prior entrepreneurship experience is not or at best weakly related to innovation whereas perception of entrepreneurial skills is positively related to (product) innovation.

Keywords: necessity entrepreneurship, product innovation, process innovation, human capital, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)

Purchase this Article

To purchase this article click the Add To Order button below. The paper will be delivered electronically as a watermarked PDF file with a licence to make the number of copies ordered. Delivery of the article to your email address will normally be within 24 hours of placing the order online. If you would prefer to post or fax your order then please CLICK HERE for a printable order form. If you experience any difficulties please email us at:

If you wish to take out a yearly subscription to this journal CLICK HERE for prices and to order

Paper Pricing
USA and Rest of World
US Dollars($)
Euros (€)
Great Britain
Sterling (£)
Article Price