Senate Hall Academic Publishing

Click HERE for a sample entrepreneurship paper

NOTE: Since 2009 the title of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (IJEE) has been changed to the title above.  ISSN numbers: IJEE 1649-2269 and IRE 2009-2822

Publications & Abstracts below

In the ABS journals rankings published by the Chartered Association of Business Schools and also listed by Cabells, EBSCO, ARC, Cranfield, and Thomson-Reuters’ Web of Science ESCI citations index

ISSN Number: 2009-2822. Frequency: 4 Issues per year (online only)  

Article #1528 - Job Creation by the Solo Self-Employed During the First Years of Business

IRE Vol 14: Issue 1, 2016 , Pages 103-122

Author(s): Author(s): Albert Kraaij and Elisa Elbers (Financial Inclusion & New Entrepreneurship, The Hague University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands)

Among a cohort of solo self-employed in the Netherlands starting their business in 2008, we investigate how many of them employed at least one employee three years later, i.e., in 2011. We also investigate the determinants of the transition from solo self-employed to employer. We find that, among surviving businesses, only 6.2% of solo self-employed turn into employer within the first three years of running business. We also find that the amount of time invested in the business at the time of start-up significantly increases the probability of turning into employer whereas the age of the entrepreneur is negatively related to job creation. We did not find evidence for various human capital factors to influence the probability of turning into employer.

Keywords: own-account worker, employer, graduation, self-employment, hiring, job creation, entrepreneurship, solo self-employed, start-up

Purchase this Article

To purchase this article click the Add To Order button below. The paper will be delivered electronically as a watermarked PDF file with a licence to make the number of copies ordered. Delivery of the article to your email address will normally be within 24 hours of placing the order online. If you would prefer to post or fax your order then please CLICK HERE for a printable order form. If you experience any difficulties please email us at:

If you wish to take out a yearly subscription to this journal CLICK HERE for prices and to order

Paper Pricing
USA and Rest of World
US Dollars($)
Euros (€)
Great Britain
Sterling (£)
Article Price