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NOTE: Since 2009 the title of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (IJEE) has been changed to the title above.  ISSN numbers: IJEE 1649-2269 and IRE 2009-2822

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ISSN Number: 2009-2822. Frequency: 4 Issues per year (online only)  

Article #1652 - How Entrepreneurial Leaders Can Navigate a Crisis Successfully: Lessons and Hypotheses

IRE Vol 19: Issue 2, 2021, Pages 225-272

Author(s): Eric Flamholtz and Yvonne Randle (Anderson School of Management, UCLA and Management Systems Consulting Corporation, Los Angeles, USA)

This article deals with leadership responses to organizational crises. A sample of organizations were examined in order to derive insights and lessons which might help corporate leaders navigate organizational crises, including: American Express, Chrysler, Disney, Eastman Kodak, International Harvester/Navistar, Osborne Computer, Sears, United Airlines, and Westfield. The sample included successful and unsuccessful crisis responses, entrepreneurial and established institutional enterprises, and crises precipitated by external factors and/or internal factors. The study addresses the nature of the crises encountered, the underlying causes, whether there are significant differences between entrepreneurial companies and established companies, and whether a set of organizational preconditions of susceptibility to a crisis exists. It also identifies lessons to be derived from both successful and unsuccessful leadership of a crisis, and areas for future research.