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NOTE: Since 2009 the title of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (IJEE) has been changed to the title above.  ISSN numbers: IJEE 1649-2269 and IRE 2009-2822

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ISSN Number: 2009-2822. Frequency: 4 Issues per year (online only)  

Article #1684 - Challenges of E-Commerce Adoption Experienced by Pakistani SMEs: A Qualitative Analysis

IRE Vol 20: Issue 3, 2022 , Pages 447-476

Author(s): Muhammad Arsalan Nazir (Faculty of Greenwich Business School, University of Greenwich, London, UK), Muhammad Azam Roomi (Prince Mohammed Bin Salman College (MBSC) of Business & Entrepreneurship, King Abdullah Economic City, Saudi Arabia), and Mohsin Raza Khan (Bahria Business School, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan)

This study explores the various contextual challenges that SMEs face in adopting e-commerce in Pakistan. To satisfy the study aim, a qualitative method of research was selected, comprising semi-structured face-to-face and unstructured telephone interviews. Applying the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study found several key challenges SMEs encountered during e-commerce adoption. Five major types of challenges that emerged during data analysis were technological, organizational, and environmental challenges, and challenges related to national (local) institutional support and to the entrepreneurial characteristics of owner-managers. This study shows the adoption of e-commerce in Pakistani SMEs is dynamic and, when enthusiastic owner-managers and other employees become interested in technology and are willing to engage in e-commerce projects, the chances of e-commerce adoption are greater. The findings of this study provide policymakers with a real-market overview (or contextual knowledge) to formulate e-commerce policies that will help new entrepreneurs in SMEs and improve their capacity for innovation.